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  Location: Home >> Faculty >> Molecular Agrobiology
  Molecular Agrobiology

Caixia Gao


1994-1997: Ph.D. China Agricultural University

1991-1994: M.S. Gansu Agricultural University 

1987-1991: B.S. Gansu Agricultural University   



2009-present: Principal investigator, Molecular AgroBiology Center, Institute of Genetics & Developmental Biology, CAS, China 

1998-2009: Research Scientist, Research Division, DLF-Trifolium Group, Denmark 

1997-1998: Postdoc, Research Division, DLF-Trifolium Group, Denmark 


Research Interests: 

Developing novel technologies to achieve efficient and specific genome engineering, and applying them to study the function of genes and modify plant traits for high-quality, disease resistance and stress tolerance in crop species.  

Publications (* Corresponding author; 1 co-first author)
1. Jin S1, Lin Q1, Luo Y1, Zhu Z1, Liu G, Li Y, Chen K, Qiu JL, Gao C* (2021) Genome-wide specificity of prime editors in plants. Nature Biotechnology, doi: 10.1038/s41587-021-00891-x.
2. Lin Q1, Jin S1, Zong Y1, Yu H1, Zhu Z, Liu G, Kou L, Wang Y, Qiu JL, Li J*, Gao C* (2021) High-efficiency prime editing with optimized, paired pegRNAs in plants. Nature Biotechnology, doi:10.1038/s41587-021-00868-w.
3. Gao C* (2021) Genome engineering for crop improvement and future agriculture. Cell, 184, 1621-1635.
4. Yu H1*, Lin T1, Meng X1, Du H1, Zhang J1, Liu G, Chen M, Jing Y, Kou L, Li X, Gao Q, Liang Y, Liu X, Fan Z, Liang Y, Cheng Z, Chen M, Tian Z, Wang Y, Chu C, Zuo J, Wan J, Qian Q, Han B, Zuccolo A, Wing RA, Gao C*, Liang C*, Li J* (2021) A route to de novo domestication of wild allotetraploid rice. Cell, 184, 1156-1170.
5. Xu Y1, Lin Q1, Li X, Wang F, Chen Z, Wang J, Li W, Fan F, Tao Y, Jiang Y, Wei X, Zhang R, Zhu QH, Bu Q*, Yang J*, Gao C* (2021) Fine-tuning the amylose content of rice by precise base editing of the Wx Gene. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 19, 11-13.
6. Jin S, Gao Q, Gao C* (2021) An unbiased method for evaluating the genome-wide specificity of base editors in rice. Nature Protocols, 16, 431-457.
7. Zhang R1, Chen S1, Meng X1, Chai Z, Wang D, Yuan Y, Chen K, Jiang L*, Li J*, Gao C* (2020) Generating broad-spectrum tolerance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in rice by base editing. Science China Life Sciences.
8. Jiang Y1, Chai Y1, Lu M1, Han X, Lin Q, Zhang Y, Zhang Q, Zhou Y, Wang X, Gao C*, Chen QJ* (2020) Prime editing efficiently generates W542L and S621I double mutations in two ALS genes in maize. Genome Biology, 21, 257.
9. Zhu H1, Li C1, Gao C* (2020) Applications of CRISPR-Cas in agriculture and plant biotechnology. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 21, 661-677.
10.Xing S1, Chen K1, Zhu H, Zhang R, Zhang H, Li B, Gao C* (2020) Fine-tuning sugar content in strawberry. Genome Biology, 21, 230.
11.Jin S1, Fei H1, Zhu Z1, Luo Y1, Liu J, Gao S, Zhang F, Chen YH, Wang Y*, Gao C* (2020) Rationally designed APOBEC3B cytosine base editors with improved specificity. Molecular Cell, 79, 728-740.e6.
12.Xie H1, Ge X1, Yang F, Wang B, Li S, Duan J, Lv X, Cheng C, Song Z, Liu C, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Wu J, Gao C, Zhang J*, Gu F* (2020) High-fidelity SaCas9 identified by directional screening in human cells. PloS Biology, 18, e3000747.
13.Wang S1, Zong Y1, Lin Q1, Zhang H1, Chai Z, Zhang D, Chen K, Qiu JL, Gao C* (2020) Precise, predictable multi-nucleotide deletions in rice and wheat using APOBEC-Cas9. Nature Biotechnology, 38, 1460-1465.
14.Fan R1, Chai Z1, Xing S, Chen K, Qiu F, Chai T, Qiu JL, Zhang Z*, Zhang H*, Gao C* (2020) Shortening the sgRNA-DNA interface enables SpCas9 and eSpCas9(1.1) to nick the target DNA strand. Science China Life Sciences, 63, 1619-1630.
15.López-Marqués RL*, N?rrevang AF, Ache P, Moog M, Visintainer D, Wendt T, ?sterberg JT, Dockter C, J?rgensen ME, Salvador AT, Hedrich R, Gao C, Jacobsen SE, Shabala S, Palmgren M* (2020) Prospects for the accelerated improvement of the resilient crop quinoa. Journal of Experimental Botany, 71, 5333-5347.
16.Li C, Zong Y, Jin S, Zhu H, Lin D, Li S, Qiu JL, Wang Y*, Gao C* (2020) SWISS: multiplexed orthogonal genome editing in plants with a Cas9 nickase and engineered CRISPR RNA scaffolds. Genome Biology, 21, 141.
17.Wang H1, Sun S1, Ge W1, Zhao L1, Hou B1, Wang K1, Lyu Z1, Chen L, Xu S, Guo J, Li M, Su P, Li X, Wang G, Bo C, Fang X, Zhuang W, Cheng X, Wu J, Dong L, Chen W, Li W, Xiao G, Zhao J, Hao Y, Xu Y, Gao Y, Liu W, Liu Y, Yin H, Li J, Li X, Zhao Y, Wang X, Ni F, Ma X, Li A, Xu SS, Bai G, Nevo E, Gao C, Ohm H, Kong L* (2020) Horizontal gene transfer of Fhb7 from fungus underlies Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat. Science, 368, eaba5435..
18.Zhang Y, Pribil M, Palmgren, M*, Gao C*(2020) A CRISPR way for accelerating improvement of food crops. Nature Food, 1, 200-205.
19.Lin Q1, Zong Y1, Xue C1, Wang S, Jin S, Zhu Z, Wang Y, Anzalone AV, Raguram A, Doman JL, Liu DR, Gao C* (2020) Prime genome editing in rice and wheat. Nature Biotechnology, 38:582-585.
20.Chen K, Gao C* (2020) Genome-edited crops: how to move them from laboratory to market. Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering, 7, 181-187.
21.Zhang Y1, Ran Y1, Nagy I, Lenk I, Qiu JL, Asp T, Jensen CS, Gao C* (2020) Targeted mutagenesis in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 18, 1854-1856.
22.Li C1, Zhang R1, Meng X1, Chen S, Zong Y, Lu C, Qiu JL, Chen YH, Li J*, Gao C* (2020) Targeted, random mutagenesis of plant genes with dual cytosine and adenine base editors. Nature Biotechnology, 38, 875-882.
23.Si X, Zhang H, Wang Y, Chen K, Gao C* (2020) Manipulating gene translation in plants by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing of upstream open reading frames. Nature Protocols, 15, 338-363.
24.DeHaan L, Larson S, López-Marqués RL, Wenkel S, Gao C, Palmgren M* (2020) Roadmap for accelerated domestication of an emerging perennial grain crop. Trends in Plant Science, 25, 525-537.
25.Cao S1, Luo X1, Xie L1, Gao C, Wang D, Holt BF 3rd, Lin H, Chu C, Xia X* (2019) The florigen interactor BdES43 represses flowering in the model temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon. Plant Journal, 102, 262-275.
26.Ji X, Wang D, Gao C* (2019) CRISPR editing-mediated antiviral immunity: a versatile source of resistance to combat plant virus infections. Science China Life Sciences, 62, 1246-1249.
27.Gao C* (2019) Precision plant breeding using genome editing technologies. Transgenic Research, 28, 53-55. 
28.Hickey LT*, N Hafeez A, Robinson H, Jackson SA, Leal-Bertioli SCM, Tester M, Gao C, Godwin ID, Hayes BJ, Wulff BBH* (2019) Breeding crops to feed 10 billion. Nature Biotechnology, 37, 744-754.
29.Liu G1, Yin K1, Zhang Q, Gao C, Qiu JL* (2019) Modulating chromatin accessibility by transactivation and targeting proximal dsgRNAs enhances Cas9 editing efficiency in vivo. Genome Biology, 20, 145.
30.He X, Wang Y, Yang F, Wang B, Xie H, Gu L, Zhao T, Liu X, Zhang D, Ren Q, Liu X, Liu Y, Gao C, Gu F* (2019) Boosting activity of high-fidelity CRISPR/Cas9 variants using a tRNAGln-processing system in human cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 294, 9308-9315.
31.Zhang R1, Liu J1, Chai Z, Chen S, Bai Y, Zong Y, Chen K, Li J, Jiang L*, Gao C* (2019) Generation of herbicide tolerance traits and a new selectable marker in wheat using base editing. Nature Plants, 5, 480-485.
32.Li J*, Gao C* (2019) Preface to the special topic on genome editing research in China. National Science Review, 6, 389-390.
33.Cao X, Dong Z, Tian D, Dong L, Qian W, Liu J, Liu X, Qin H, Zhai W, Gao C, Zhang K*, Wang D* (2019) Development and characterization of marker‐free and transgene insertion site‐defined transgenic wheat with improved grain storability and fatty acid content. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 18, 129-140.
34.Jin S1, Zong Y1, Gao Q1, Zhu Z, Wang Y, Qin P, Liang C, Wang D, Qiu J, Zhang F, Gao C* (2019) Cytosine, but not adenine, base editors induce genome-wide off-target mutations in rice. Science, 364, 292-295.
35.Chen K1, Wang Y1, Zhang R, Zhang H, Gao C* (2019) CRISPR/Cas Genome editing and precision plant breeding in agriculture. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 70, 667-697.
36.Liu Q1, Wang C1, Jiao X, Zhang H, Song L, Li Y, Gao C, Wang K* (2019) Hi-TOM: a platform for high-throughput tracking of mutations induced by CRISPR/Cas systems. Science China Life Sciences, 62, 1-7.
37.Ji X1, Si X1, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Zhang F, Gao C* (2018) Conferring DNA virus resistance with high specificity in plants using virus-inducible genome editing system. Genome Biology, 19, 197.
38.Zhang Y, Massel K, Godwin I, Gao C* (2018) Applications and potential of genome editing in crop improvement. Genome Biology, 19, 210.
39.Li T1, Yang X1, Yu Y1, Si X, Zhai X, Zhang H, Dong W, Gao C*, Xu C* (2018) Domestication of wild tomato is accelerated by genome editing. Nature Biotechnology, 36, 1160-1163.
40.Zong Y1, Song Q1, Li C, Jin S, Zhang D, Wang Y, Qiu JL, Gao C* (2018) Efficient C-to-T base editing in plants using a fusion of nCas9 and human APOBEC3A. Nature Biotechnology, 36, 950-953. 
41.Xue C1, Zhang H1, Lin Q, Fan R, Gao C* (2018) Manipulating mRNA splicing by base editing in plants. Science China Life Sciences, 61, 1293-1300.
42.Zhang H1, Si X1, Ji X1, Fan R, Liu J, Chen K, Wang D, Gao C* (2018) Genome editing of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) enables translational control in plants. Nature Biotechnology, 36, 894-898.
43.Guo L1, Cao X1, Liu Y1, Li J, Li Y, Li D, Zhang K, Gao C, Dong A, Liu X* (2018) A chromatin loop represses WUSCHEL expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Journal, 94, 1083-1097.
44.Li C1, Zong Y1, Wang Y1, Jin S, Zhang D, Song Q, Zhang R, Gao C* (2018) Expanded base editing in rice and wheat using a Cas9-adenosine deaminase fusion. Genome Biology, 19, 59.
45.Liang Z, Chen K, Zhang Y, Yan Y, Gao C* (2018) Genotyping genome-edited mutations in plants using CRISPR ribonucleoprotein complexes. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 16, 2053-2062.
46.Meng X1, Hu X1, Liu Q, Song X, Gao C, Li J, Wang K* (2018) Robust genome editing of CRISPR-Cas9 at NAG PAMs in rice. Science China Life Sciences, 61, 122-125.
47.Bhowmik P*, Ellison E, Polley B, Bollina V, Kulkarni M, Ghanbarnia K, Song H, Gao C, Voytas DF, Kagale S* (2018) Targeted mutagenesis in wheat microspores using CRISPR/Cas9. Scientific Reports, 8, 6502.
48.Zhang Y1, Li D1, Zhang D, Zhao X, Cao X, Dong L, Liu J, Chen K, Zhang H, Gao C*, Wang D* (2018) Analysis of the functions of TaGW2 homoeologs in wheat grain weight and protein content traits. Plant Journal, 94, 857-866.
49.Liang Z1, Chen K1, Zhang Y, Liu J, Yin K, Qiu J, Gao C* (2018) Genome editing of bread wheat using biolistic delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 in vitro transcripts or ribonucleoproteins. Nature Protocols, 13, 413-430.
50.Gao C* (2018) The future of CRISPR technologies in agriculture. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 19, 275-276.
51.Zhang D, Xu Z, Cao S, Chen K, Li S, Liu X, Gao C, Zhang B*, Zhou Y* (2018) An uncanonical CCCH-tandem zinc finger protein represses secondary wall synthesis and controls mechanical strength in rice. Molecular Plant, 11, 163-174.
52.Wang M1, Wang S1, Liang Z, Shi W, Gao C*, Xia G* (2018) From genetic stock to genome editing: gene exploitation in wheat. Trends in Biotechnology, 36, 160-172.
53.Zhang Y, Gao C* (2017) Recent advances in DNA-free editing and precise base editing in plants. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences, 1, 161-168.
54.Wang Y1, Yu H1, Tian C, Sajjad M, Gao C, Tong Y, Wang X*, Jiao Y* (2017) Transcriptome association identifies regulators of wheat spike architecture. Plant Physiology, 175, 746-757.
55.Tu M, Lin L, Cheng Y, He X, Sun H, Xie H, Fu J, Liu C, Li J, Chen D, Xi H, Xue D, Liu Q, Zhao J, Gao C, Song Z, Qu J and Gu F* (2017) A ’new lease of life’: FnCpf1 possesses DNA cleavage activity for genome editing in human cells. Nucleic Acids Research, 45, 11295-11304.
56.Zhang D1, Zhang H1, Li T, Chen K, Qiu J, Gao C* (2017) Perfectly matched 20-nucleotide guide RNA sequences enable robust genome editing using high-fidelity SpCas9 nucleases, Genome Biology, 18, 191.
57.Wang C1, Liu W1, Wang G1, Li J, Dong L, Han L, Wang Q, Tian J, Yu Y, Gao C and Kong Z* (2017) KTN80 confers precision to microtubule severing by specific targeting of katanin complexes in plant cells. The EMBO Journal, 36, 3435-3447.
58.Meng X1, Yu H1, Zhang Y, Zhuang F, Song X, Gao S, Gao C*, Li J* (2017) Construction of a genome-wide mutant library in rice using CRISPR/Cas9. Molecular Plant, 10, 1238-1241.
59.Yin K, Gao C*, Qiu J* (2017) Progress and prospects in plant genome editing. Nature Plants, 3, 17107.
60.Ran Y*, Liang Z, Gao C* (2017) Current and future editing reagent delivery systems for plant genome editing. Science China Life Science, 60, 490-505.
61.Zhang Y1, Bai Y1, Wu G, Zou S, Chen Y, Gao C*, Tang D* (2017) Simultaneous modification of three homoeologs of TaEDR1 by genome editing enhances powdery mildew resistance in wheat. Plant Journal, 91, 714-724. 
63.Zong Y1, Wang Y1, Li C, Zhang R, Chen K, Ran Y, Qiu J, Wang D, Gao C* (2017) Precise base editing in rice, wheat and maize with a Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusion. Nature Biotechnology, 35, 438-440.
64.Liang Z1, Chen K1, Li T, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Zhao Q, Liu J, Zhang H, Liu C, Ran Y, Gao C* (2017) Efficient DNA-free genome editing of bread wheat using CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes. Nature Communications, 8, 1426.
65.Gil-Humanes J, Wang Y, Liang Z, Shan Q, Ozuna C, Sanchez-Leon S, Baltes N, Starker C, Francisco Barro F, Gao C and Voytas DF* (2017) High-efficiency gene targeting in hexaploid wheat using DNA replicons and CRISPR/Cas9. Plant Journal, 89, 1251-1262.
66.Li J1, Meng X1, Zong Y, Chen K, Zhang H, Liu J, Li J*, Gao C* (2016) Gene replacements and insertions in rice by intron targeting using CRISPR/Cas9. Nature Plants, 2, 16139.
67.Zhang Y1, Liang Z1, Zong Y1, Wang Y, Liu J, Chen K, Qiu J, Gao C* (2016) Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA. Nature Communications, 7, 12617.
68.Jiao, R*, Gao C* (2016) The CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing revolution. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 43, 227-228. [Editorial review]
69.Li, X. H, Xia, K, Liang, Z, Chen, K, Gao, C, Zhang, M* (2016) MicroRNA393 is involved in nitrogen-promoted rice tillering through regulation of auxin signal transduction in axillary buds. Scientific Reports, 6, 32158.
70.Ji X1, Zhang H1, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Gao C* (2015) Establishing a CRISPR-Cas-like immue system conferring DNA virus resistance in plants. Nature Plants, 1, 15144.
71.Wang S, Li S, Liu Q, Wu K, Zhang J, Wang S, Wang Y, Chen X, Zhang Y, Gao C, Wang F, Huang H, Fu X* (2015) The OsSPL16-GW7 regulatory module determines grain shape and simultaneously improves rice yield and grain quality. Nature Genetics, 47, 949.
72.Shan Q, Zhang Y, Chen K, Zhang K, Gao C* (2015) Creation of fragrant rice by targeted knockout of the OsBADH2 gene using TALEN technology. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13, 791-800.
73.Zhang K, Liu J, Zhang Y, Yang Z, Gao C* (2015) Biolistic genetic transformation of a wide range of Chinese elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 42, 39-42.
74.Shan Q, Wang Y, Li J, Gao C*(2014) Genome editing in rice and wheat using the CRISPR/Cas system. Nature Protocols, 9, 2395-2410.
75.Gao C* (2015) Genome editing in crops: from bench to field. National Science Review, 2, 13-15.
76.Wang Y1, Cheng X1, Shan Q, Zhang Y, Liu J, Gao C*, Qiu J * (2014) Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew. Nature Biotechnology, 32, 947-951.
77.Xiao J, Xu S, Li C, Xu Y, Xing L, Niu Y, Huan Q, Tang Y, Zhao C, Wagner D, Gao C, Chong K* (2014) O-GlcNAc-mediated interaction between VER2 and TaGRP2 elicits TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation during vernalization in winter wheat. Nature Communications, 5, 4572.
78.Voytas D F*, Gao, C* (2014) Precision genome engineering and agriculture: opportunities and regulatory challenges. PLoS Biology, 12, e1001877.
79.Liang Z, Zhang K, Chen K, Gao C* (2014) Targeted mutagenesis in zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 41, 63-68.
80.Chen K, Shan Q, Gao C* (2014) An efficient TALEN mutagenesis system in rice. Methods, 69, 2-8.
81.Chen K, Gao C* (2014) Targeted genome modification technologies and their applications in crop improvements. Plant Cell Reports, 33, 575-583.
82.Shan Q1, Wang Y1, Li J1, Zhang Y, Chen K, Liang Z, Zhang K, Liu J, Qiu J*, Gao C* (2013) Targeted genome modification of crop plants using a CRISPR-Cas system. Nature Biotechnology, 31, 686-688.
83.Chen K, Gao C* (2013) TALENs: Customizable Molecular DNA Scissors for Genome Engineering of Plants. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 40, 271-279.
84.Shan Q1, Wang Y1, Chen K1, Liang Z, Li J, Zhang Y, Zhang K, Liu J, Voytas D F, Zheng X, Zhang Y*, Gao C* (2013) Rapid and efficient gene modification in rice and Brachypodium using TALENs. Molecular Plant, 6, 1365-1368.
85.Long D, Wu X, Yang Z, Lenk I, Nielsen KK, Gao C* (2011) Comparison of three selectable marker genes for transformation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants by particle bombardment. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 47, 658-666.
86.Brkljacic J, Grotewold E, Scholl R, Mockler T, Garvin DF, Vain P, Brutnell T, Sibout R, Bevan M, Budak H, Caicedo AL, Gao C, Gu Y, Hazen SP, Holt BF 3rd, Hong SY, Jordan M, Manzaneda AJ, Mitchell-Olds T, Mochida K, Mur LA, Park CM, Sedbrook J, Watt M, Zheng SJ, Vogel JP* (2011) Brachypodium as a model for the grasses: today and the future. Plant Physiology, 157, 3-13.
87.Gao C*, Liu J, Nielsen KK (2009) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.). Plant Cell Reports, 28, 1431-1437.
88.Gao C*, Long D, Lenk I, Nielsen KK (2008) Comparative analysis of transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment. Plant Cell Reports, 27, 1601-1609.
89.Gao C*, Jiang L, Folling M, Han L, Nielsen KK (2006) Generation of large numbers of transgenic Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) plants following biolistic gene transfer. Plant Cell Reports, 25, 19-25.
Invited Book Chapters (* Corresponding author)
1. Li J, Meng X, Li J, Gao C* (2019) Gene Replacement by Intron Targeting with CRISPR-Cas9. In: Qi Y. (eds) Plant Genome Editing with CRISPR Systems. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1917. 285-296.
2. Liang Z, Chen K, Gao C* (2019) Biolistic Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 with Ribonucleoprotein Complex in Wheat. In: Qi Y. (eds) Plant Genome Editing with CRISPR Systems. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1917, 311-326.
3. Wang Y, Zong Y, Gao C* (2017) Targeted Mutagenesis in Hexaploid Bread Wheat Using the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas Systems. In: Bhalla P., Singh M. (eds) Wheat Biotechnology. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1679, 169-185
4. Liang Z, Zong Y, Gao C* (2016) An Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis System Using CRISPR/Cas in Monocotyledons. Current Protocols in Plant Biology 1, 329-344.
5. Zhang Y, Li J, Gao C* (2016) Generation of Stable Transgenic Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation. Current Protocols in Plant Biology 1, 235-246.
6. Chen K, Gao C* (2015) Develping CRISPR technology in major crop plants. F. Zhang et al. (eds.), Advances in New Technology for Targeted Modification of Planty Genomes. P145-161. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-2556-8_8.
7. Chen K, Gao C* (2015) Targeted gene mutation in plants. X.-Q. Li et al. (eds.), Somatic Genome Manipulation. p253-272. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-2389-2_12.
8. Gao C*, Nielsen KK (2013) Comparison Between Agrobacterium-Mediated and Direct Gene Transfer Using the Gene Gun. Methods in Molecular Biology, 940:3-16. 2013; doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-110-3_1.